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Use of the Montessori Method with Clients With Dementia

Kathleen Weissberg, OTD, OTR/L

February 5, 2020

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Question

How do you use the Montessori method with clients with dementia?

Answer

The basics of the Montessori method are as follows:

  • Use Everyday Materials
  • Match Interests & Skills (group/individual)
  • Use Past Experiences & Preferences
  • Adapt According to Cognitive & Physical Status
  • Simplify as Much as Necessary

The first is using everyday materials. We just talked about this. Now, when we talk about materials, they are not designed to be toys, but rather they are tools to practice independent living. These are things taken from the everyday environment and that are familiar to that person in terms of sight, touch, and smell. We want the person to not only interact with them and use them functionally, but we want it to also have a sensory component so they have the opportunity to reminisce. It could be measuring cups and they could talk about how they used to bake. In a later slide, I have some spices. You could use these to ask, "What did you use to make with these?" They could smell something and it might invoke a memory.

Next is matching interest and skills. This is a unique aspect of this approach. It is modifying that activity based on not only their cognitive and their physical ability but also their background and their interests. When Maria Montessori was working with her students, she always started with their capabilities and needs. What were they able to do? What do they like to do?  You do not want to frustrate them, but you need to make the task just a little bit beyond their comfort zone. They still have the opportunity to improve.

You also want to use their past experiences and preferences in trying to determine what those activities are. Obviously, if the person can tell us, we are going to solicit that information. As we get into those later stages of dementia, that may not be the case, so we may have to go based on what we know. If the person traveled a lot, maybe you do a matching activity with cities in Europe versus cities that are not in Europe. Or, if they enjoyed geography, you could do something with countries. If somebody enjoyed gardening, you could have them sort pictures or words into categories like fruits versus vegetables. You base your activities on their preferences and what you know.

You are also going to adapt activities based on cognitive and physical status, and that makes perfect sense. We need to tailor it to something that they are actually able to do. If it is something that is past their abilities right now, we are only going frustrate them if we push that narrative.

We simplify it as much as necessary. This is very familiar to us. We break down that activity into smaller steps that can be mastered and then sequenced and put together in order to engage.


kathleen weissberg

Kathleen Weissberg, OTD, OTR/L

Kathleen Weissberg, in her 25+ years of practice, has worked in long-term care as a researcher/educator and has established various programs in nursing facilities including palliative care and end of life care, incontinence management, falls management and dementia care and staging. She currently provides continuing education support to 6000 therapists nationwide as Director of Education for Select Rehabilitation.


Related Courses

An Evidence-Based Approach to Fall Risk Assessment
Presented by Kathleen Weissberg, OTD, OTR/L
Video

Presenter

Kathleen Weissberg, OTD, OTR/L
Course: #2593Level: Intermediate1 Hour
  'Excellent evidence based statistics for fall prediction'   Read Reviews
This seminar reviews the definition of a fall and risk factors related to falls. Evidence-based assessments demonstrated to be predictive of risk are reviewed as they relate to occupational therapy practice with elderly clients. Please note: This course is also offered in a series of recordings titled "Series: Fall Prevention", course 2641 which is offered for AOTA/0.2 and NBCOT/2.5.


Evidence-Based Intervention for Balance and Falls Prevention
Presented by Kathleen Weissberg, OTD, OTR/L
Video

Presenter

Kathleen Weissberg, OTD, OTR/L
Course: #2594Level: Intermediate1 Hour
  'All of the intervention ideas/examples included'   Read Reviews
This seminar will review evidence-based intervention strategies applicable to a balance and falls management program including environmental modification, patient and caregiver education and balance retraining activities. Falls management program rationale and implementation is also discussed as well as interdisciplinary techniques and strategies to reduce fall risk in the elderly. Please note: This course is also offered in a series of recordings titled "Series: Fall Prevention", course 2641 which is offered for AOTA/0.2 and NBCOT/2.5.


Series: Fall Prevention
Presented by Kathleen Weissberg, OTD, OTR/L
Video

Presenter

Kathleen Weissberg, OTD, OTR/L
Course: #2641Level: Intermediate2 Hours
  'very practical'   Read Reviews
The first part of this series reviews the definition of a fall and risk factors related to falls. Evidence-based assessments demonstrated to be predictive of risk are reviewed as they relate to occupational therapy practice with elderly clients. The second part reviews evidence-based intervention strategies applicable to a balance and falls management program including environmental modification, patient and caregiver education and balance retraining activities. Falls management program rationale and implementation is also discussed as well as interdisciplinary techniques and strategies to reduce fall risk in the elderly. Please note: This course series is comprised of the following individual recordings: #2605 and #2615.


A Montessori-Based Approach for Aging and Dementia
Presented by Kathleen Weissberg, OTD, OTR/L
Video

Presenter

Kathleen Weissberg, OTD, OTR/L
Course: #4525Level: Intermediate1 Hour
  'The instructor was very knowledgeable and engaging'   Read Reviews
In this course, participants will learn about the Montessori principles of independence according to one’s ability and the benefits of the prepared environment. Specifically, participants will learn about the fundamental principles of the Montessori method, how to conduct a Montessori-based session, Montessori-based steps to engagement that reduce unwanted behaviors, issues that may arise with this approach, and using case studies and video examples, how to set up activities/tasks for individuals with dementia using a Montessori Approach.

Fall Management: Evidence-Based Interventions for Screening and Intervention
Presented by Kathleen D. Weissberg, OTD, OTR/L, CMDCP, CDP
Video

Presenter

Kathleen D. Weissberg, OTD, OTR/L, CMDCP, CDP
Course: #9453Level: Intermediate2 Hours
  'We do fall prev ed all the time'   Read Reviews
This session will review evidence-based screening and intervention strategies applicable to a balance and falls management program including research-based exercise programs, environmental modification, patient and caregiver education and balance retraining activities. Falls management program rationale and implementation is also discussed as well as interdisciplinary techniques and strategies to reduce fall risk in the elderly.